6-10 lb/ac [7-11 kg/ha] Broadcast and incorporated rate should be 10 - 20% higher than drilled rate. Increase seeding rate in late fall.
Aerial seeding rate
Recommended at least 25% higher than drilled rate.
Seeds per lb
34000 (metric: 75000)
Reduce seeding rate to 2-5 lbs/acre if planter units used.
Freeze, Tillage, Herbicide
Mild winters may allow for 10% survival of some varieties
Legume Nitrogen Source
N scavenger + N holder
Organic matter/soil builder
Water Erosion Fighter
Wind Erosion Fighter
Quick Residue Breakdown
Poor - Mature crops are slower to decompose. Manage termination accordingly.
Interseed with Cash Crop
Dry Matter per year
1200-3500 lb/ac [1350-3900 kg/ha] - Dry matter and N content depends on amount of crop growth and maturity.
Good N scavenging and weed control; N released rapidly; Best used in mixture with one or more cover crops
Raphanus sativus var.oleifer.
Cool Season Annual
Prefered Soil pH
Relative Costs (per area)
Min. Germination Temp.
Low Fertility Tolerance
Potential Advantages, these are general, tentative ratings
Makes P&K more available to crops
Soil Ecology - Suppresses Nematodes
Soil Ecology - Suppresses Disease
Good, check for specific diseases
Weed Control - Allelopathy
Weed Control - Chokes Weeds
Takes foot or vehicle traffic
Excellent, growth in a short time period
Winter kills at 25°F; Attracts earthworms. Non host for soybean cyst nematode. Adagio and Colonel OSR are commonly used as trap crops for sugarbeet cyst nematode.
Potential Disadvantages (these are general ratings)
Volunteer Establishment (includes hard seed)
Could be moderate problem
Could be moderate problem, includes hard seed, likelihood to produce seed or survive termination
Could be a minor problem
Rarely a problem, check for specific diseases
Rarely a problem
Challenges incorporating mature residues
Occasionally a problem
Winter kills at 25°F; Cultivars vary widely; Odor during decay. Host for root knot nematode, Penetrans Root-Lesion Nematode and sugarbeet cyst nematode; Risk for white mold (Sclerotinia). Early planting with dense vigorous growth may plug tiles.