60-110 lb/ac [67-123 kg/ha] Broadcast and incorporated rate should be 10 - 20% higher than drilled rate. Increase seeding rate in late fall.
Aerial seeding rate
Recommended at least 25% higher than drilled rate.
Seeds per lb
18160 (metric: 40,000 )
Tillage, Mow, Herbicide, Roller Crimper
If terminating with only tillage, multiple passes often required; Crimp during reproductive stage (milk or dough stage)
Legume Nitrogen Source
N scavenger + N holder
Organic matter/soil builder
Water Erosion Fighter
Wind Erosion Fighter
Quick Residue Breakdown
Poor - Mature crops are slower to decompose. Manage termination accordingly.
Interseed with Cash Crop
Dry Matter per year
2500-6000 [2800-6700 kg/ha] - Dry matter and N content depends on amount of crop growth and maturity.
Tolerates triazine herbicides; One of the latest seeded cover crops; Lasting residue increases as cover crop approaches maturity
Cool Season Annual
Prefered Soil pH
Relative Costs (per area)
Min. Germination Temp.
Low Fertility Tolerance
Potential Advantages, these are general, tentative ratings
Makes P&K more available to crops
Soil Ecology - Suppresses Nematodes
Soil Ecology - Suppresses Disease
Good, check for specific diseases
Weed Control - Allelopathy
Weed Control - Chokes Weeds
Takes foot or vehicle traffic
Excellent, growth in a short time period
Non host for root knot nematode, soybean cyst nematode and sugarbeet cyst nematode.
Potential Disadvantages (these are general ratings)
Volunteer Establishment (includes hard seed)
Rarely a problem
Could be moderate problem, includes hard seed, likelihood to produce seed or survive termination
Could be a minor problem
Occasionally a problem, check for specific diseases
Rarely a problem
Challenges incorporating mature residues
Could be a major problem
Can become a weed if tilled at wrong stage; Best if killed early; Not recommended before corn; Mow-kills after heading. Host for Penetrans Root-Lesion Nematode; Could increase risk of spring cut worm and potato stem borer.